Sunday, 19 February 2017

In Memory of the Toll Boys

It would be easy to overlook this memorial plaque on the wall of a tenement building in Robert Street, Port Glasgow.  It commemorates local men who died in World War I - Port Glasgow's Toll Boys, so called because there used to be a toll house in the area.

The following are the names on the memorial:-

Royal Garrison Artillery
W Burnside
Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders
N Collins, P Couper, S Gilmour, R Graham, S Kane, J Love, J McGhie, J McKay, D Mooney, A Orr,
S Ptolmey
1st Royal Dragoons
Couper A
Naval Division
J Duffy, S Gourley, S Mitchell
Cameron Highlanders
A Logan, J Kincaid, A McKay, G Potter
Highland Light Infantry
J Logan
Royal Scots
F McCorkindale
Iniskillen Fusiliers
A McLean
Seaforth Highlanders
J Rorrison
Royal Field Artillery
J Sheilds, W Tanner
Royal Navy
G Simpson, D Wilson
Durham Light Infantry
T Walker

1914 PRO PATRIA 1918
Erected in
Grateful Memory
of the
Toll Boys
who fell in the Great War
"Their name liveth for evermore"

Where to look for more information
If you have a relative from this area who may have died in the Great War, then Inverclyde Council on the Family History section of their website have a section in Intimations called Soldiers and Sailors of Inverclyde 1914 - 1918 which lists all the death notices of servicemen which appeared in the local newspaper.  It gives lots of details of date of death, regiment, family etc.  The McLean Museum also have a site called Inverclyde's Great War - again this has lots of information both about local people and the war itself - a fabulous resource.  There's another list of local men named on War Memorials here.
We have some really fabulous resources here in Inverclyde.

Friday, 17 February 2017

The Fascinating Adventures of Bennet Burleigh!

Bennet Burley (or Burleigh) was the eldest son of Robert Burley and Christina Seath and he was quite a character!  
Born in 1840, he was educated in Glasgow and began work in his father's joinery business.  On 22 March 1861 aged 20 he married Marion Thomson (just 18), the daughter of John Thomson (house factor) and Marion Scott at 21 Drygate Lane, Glasgow.  The couple had a daughter Marion Scott Burley who had been born at Drygate Lane on 22 February 1861.  However, domestic life was not for Bennet Burley and he was soon off to North America.

According to the book Famous  War Correspondents by F Lauriston Bullard (Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1914), in the chapter about Bennet Burley -
"In the early part of the war between the States, there appeared one day at Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, a young Scotchman in whose pockets were the plans for a submarine battery and the sketches for a torpedo boat."  
So it would appear that Bennet made use of his father's inventions.  He joined the Confederates and engaged in privateering with John Yates Beall.  He caught malaria and while he was recuperating began to write for The Southern Illustrated News.  On his recovery he took part in a raid behind enemy lines where he was wounded, captured and charged with being a spy.  He was held in Fort Delaware where he managed to escape via a sewer.  He fled to Canada where he and Beall planned a daring mission to free Confederate prisoners at Johnson's Island Prison on Lake Erie.  The mission failed and the two men went on the run, this time charged with piracy!  Beall was eventually captured and executed at Governor's Island in New York Bay.  A bounty was placed on Bennet's head.  He was extradited from Canada and imprisoned at Detroit then later at Clinton, Ohio.  At this point his father, Robert Burley was in correspondence with the British government trying to get his son freed, but to no avail.  

Bennet seems to have been a bit of a local celebrity and his imprisonment does not seem to have been too harsh and, once again he managed to escape to Canada and fortunately the war ended.  At this time he changed the spelling of his name to Burleigh.

He continued to pursue a career in journalism and wrote for the Houston Telegraph in Texas then moved to New York.  He returned to Britain in 1878 unsuccessfully standing for Parliament for Govan, Glasgow.  A street in Govan is named after him - Burleigh Street.

He then began his career as a war correspondent, travelling all over the world.  He was signed up by the Daily Telegraph in 1882 and worked for them until he retired in 1913.  He reported from Egypt and the Sudan, always with the front line troops in the thick of the action.  He was involved in the Boer War and in 1912 was reporting from the Balkans.  He retired in 1913 and died just a few months later on 17 June 1914 at Bexhill in Sussex and was buried at Brookwood Cemetery.

Marion Thomson Burley, his first wife died in 1884 in the City Poorhouse in Glasgow.  Their daughter Marion Scott Burley had married a brassfounder a few years earlier in Glasgow and had a family.

However he also seems to have married while in New York a young Yorkshire woman named Marion Sherer with whom he had at least one child, a son Sherer Burleigh born in 1876 who managed a wood mill in Dermott, Arkansas, for Robert Burley of Glasgow.  (At some point, Bennet had introduced American hickory wood to his father who set up mills at Rock Creek, Ohio and Dermott, Arkansas.)

Bennet Burleigh was also married to Bertha Preuss and had several children.  Their daughter Bertha Burleigh was a war correspondent during the First World War and seems to have inherited her father's sense of adventure and daring-do.  She was also a photographer and illustrator.  Three of Bennet's sons, Robert Burleigh, Bennet Burleigh Jnr and James Emil, died on active service in the War.

Bennet Burleigh was certainly a remarkable man and ranks with his cousins Sir Richard Muir and Robert Livingston Muir as fascinating and well-travelled men of their time.

Thursday, 16 February 2017

Burley's Blocks and Boneshakers

Another simple gravestone in Greenock Cemetery marks the graves of remarkable people.  Robert Burley was the brother of Ann Burley (or Burleigh), who married Richard Muir.

Robert Burley was born in Bo'ness in 1806 but the family moved to Greenock - his father was a seafarer.  Robert was educated in Greenock and then served an apprenticeship to block-makers in a Greenock shipyard.  He married Christian Seath, daughter of James Seath a shipmaster on 28 October 1839 in Greenock. 

The couple moved to Glasgow where Burley set up a successful business as a joiner and block-maker.   Robert Burley was also a bit of an inventor.  He devised a "submarine gun" - according to the Glasgow Herald of 11 December 1939,
"by means of which warships might be able to discharge under-water projectiles against the enemy".. 
The author Jules Verne wrote about Burley's gun in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea - Chapter 15 -
"There are certain Fulton-style guns perfected by the Englishmen Philippe-Coles and Burley, the Frenchman Furcy, and the Italian Landi; they're equipped with a special system of airtight fastenings and can fire in underwater conditions. But I repeat: having no gunpowder, I've replaced it with air at high pressure, which is abundantly supplied me by the Nautilus's pumps."

Robert Burley also devised and produced a steel-cored handle and, perhaps not so successful his company manufactured "boneshakers", bicycles with wooden frames and wheels!

However it was as handle-makers that the company became successful.  From Dale Street they moved to Great Wellington Street and finally to larger premises in  Fairley Street, Govan.

Former Burley works Fairley Street, Govan

Robert and Christian Burley had five children, two daughters and three sons.  In the 1860s they lived at Walmer Crescent in Glasgow, then later at Bellahouston Terrace.  Christina Seath  died in 1868.  Robert lived to the grand old age of 96, dying in 1902.  His sons James and Robert continued the family business and Robert Burley & Sons celebrated its centenary in 1939.  However, it is the eldest son who is probably best remembered.  Read about him in the Greenockian's next post!

The grave stone reads:-
Erected by Robert Burley in memory of his wife Christian Seath who died 21st April 1868 aged 55 years.
Elizabeth, their daughter died 30th June 1855 aged 9 years
Robert Burley died 21st February 1902 aged 95 years
James Seath their son died 18th Nov 1916 aged 62 years and
James his son died 7th Aug 1911 aged 15 months
P/O Robert James R.A.F. his son killed 7th June 1941 aged 28 years interred Boulogne East Cem

Wednesday, 15 February 2017

Guess what this is

What do you think this structure is?  A fairground ride or a piece of modern sculpture?

Well, it is actually the Ceona Amazon, an offshore pipelaying and construction vessel.  (Follow the link in the name if you want all the techy details.)

The huge wheels have been dominating the skyline between Greenock and Port Glasgow for the last couple of months.  It has been up for sale, so I imagine that someone has found a need for this amazing vessel.

It left Greenock at the weekend.  Unfortunately I was away so didn't get the opportunity to see it out on the River Clyde.

Fantastic piece of engineering and not too bad to look at!

Tuesday, 14 February 2017

Stewart of Stewartfield Memorial Greenock

This magnificent memorial tablet can be found in the Wellpark Mid Kirk Church, Cathcart Square, Greenock.  It was erected in memory of George Stewart of this town.  It reads:-

Upon the 9th of Dec 1813, and in the 27th year of his age,
George Stewart of Stewartfield
Captain in the 42nd Reg of Foot
Fell, in front of Bayonne, in the Kingdom of France,
Gloriously fighting for the independence of Europe.
Endeared to all those with whom he had ever associated, and distinguished in a corps, in which the ordinary virtues of a Soldier command no pre-eminence,
His remains were consigned to an honourable grave in a foreign land.
And the companions of His early life, have raised this Memorial
to His name in His native town.

George Stewart was the son of Roger Stewart of Stewartfield and Ronachan in Kintyre.  Roger Stewart was a Greenock shipowner and merchant.

George Stewart died during the Battle of the Nive.  The river Nive runs through Bayonne which is in the south west of France at the Spanish border.  Fighting took place there towards the end of the Peninsular war.

The detailed carvings at the top of the plaque have some amazing detail of military motifs.  The Stewarts were a very interesting family.

Thursday, 9 February 2017

James Watt Cairn in Greenock Cemetery

In Greenock Cemetery there is a memorial cairn to the great engineer James Watt born in Greenock in 1736.  In Scotland, a cairn is a pile of stones, usually to commemorate a special place or person.

The plaque on the cairn reads:-
The Watt Cairn
Projected and commenced by the Watt Club 1854.
Arranged and completed on the 200th anniversary of Watt's birth 1936.
These stones, gifted from all parts of the world, speak of the universal homage
accorded the great engineer, inventor and scientist.
The monument also marks the burying place of James Watt's ancestors
removed from the Old West Kirk, 26th April 1927.

Another plaque lists the names of those who sent stones to Greenock from all over the world.
The Stones and their Donors
Malta, St Paul's Bay, Major General Sir William Reid, governor of Malta
Sebastopol Granite, Henry Innes, Secretary to the Port Admiral
Marble from Tunis, Sir Edward Baines HM Consul General
Marble from Carthage, Admiral Sir Houston Stewart
Slab from Palestine, John Currie
Stone from Peru, Alex Prentice, Lima
Stone from Ghaut of India, Bombay Mechanics Institution
Red Sandstone from Seneca Quarry, Potomac River, Gilbert Cameron
Granite Slab, Heriot Currie

Pentagonal Column from the Giant's Causeway
Stone, Mechanics Institute, St Helens
Stone from Canada, Rollo Campbell, Montreal
Foundation stones, Dougald Dove, Nitshill and Arden Quarries and
Sir Michael R Shaw Stewart Bt, A member of the Watt Club.

It is a very unusual monument.  It is right beside the memorial to Highland Mary in Greenock Cemetery.

Tuesday, 7 February 2017

The Galt Marbles?

It is curious to think that but for a last minute payment, those fabulous ancient Greek artefacts called the Elgin Marbles could have been owned by the author John Galt - The Galt Marbles - doesn't quite have the same ring to it, does it?

Galt was in Athens at the time the marbles were being shipped back to Britain.  In his Autobiography (Part I, p158) Galt relates the circumstances behind him almost acquiring the marbles -
         "Here was a chance of the most exquisite relics of art in the world becoming mine, and a speculation by the sale of them in London that would realize a fortune.  The temptation was too great.  My correspondents at Malta were Messrs. Struthers, Kennedy, and Co., to whom I wrote to pay the bills upon receiving the stones, etc etc and I shipped myself on board the vessel that I might see her safely to Hydra, where she was to put herself under the protection of a man of war.  Accordingly that evening we sailed with our precious cargo, and next morning arrived at Hydra, from which the vessel was conveyed to Malta.  But on her arrival there, the agent for the earl paid the bills, and my patriotic cupidity was frustrated."

Galt does actually make fun of himself stating later - 
"... I also imbeciliated a mock heroic poem on the Rape of the Temples, in which I was myself so guilty of being accessary in art or part."  
The poem was Athenaid and he appends it in the Autobiography after telling about his part in the scheme "in the language of Goody-Two-shoes"!  I love the fact that Galt can mock himself.
Verse from Galt's Athenaid
There was (and of course still is) a lot of disapproval of Thomas Bruce, Lord Elgin (1766 - 1841) and his actions with regard to the Parthenon marbles.  Lord Byron criticised him in his epic The Curse of Minerva, which, says Galt, Byron wrote after reading his Athenaid.  
Elgin's original intention was to make drawings and casts of the sculptures. He employed Giovanni Battista Lusieri (1755 - 1821) a landscape artist and architect formerly in the employ of the King of Naples to undertake this work.  Lusieri was the agent who dealt with the matter for Elgin.  

Lord Elgin
The French Consul M. Fauvelle tried to stop Elgin from removing the marbles to Britain - he wanted them for France and Napoleon (so says Galt).  Elgin's defence was that if he did not take them they would be destroyed by the Turks or stolen by the French.  He had a firman (permit or authority) to remove them, Galt says that he saw the firman, but being unable to read Turkish was told that the Earl had permission to remove one stone.  (Autobiography, Part 1, p160).  Of course later Elgin sold the marbles to the British Government and they are on display in the British Museum in London.

So, could there be controversy today about "The Galt Marbles"?  Or did Galt make the whole thing up?!

In his Letters from the Levant (p113), Galt writes:-
     "The distant appearance of the Acropolis somewhat resembles that of Stirling Castle, but it is inferior in altitude and general effect."
Wonderful Scottish put-down!  Wha's like us?

Monday, 6 February 2017

Muir of Newfoundland

Adjacent to the grave marker of the family of Richard and Ann (Burley or Burleigh) Muir in Greenock Cemetery, is that of Richard's brother Robert Muir and his family.  The gravestone sadly notes that it is "In memory of Robert Muir and Mary Livingston his spouse, who died within 14 days of each other."

Robert Muir (1784 - 1854) and his wife Mary Livingston (1786 - 1854) lived at Muir's Land in Lynedoch Street, Greenock.  A look at the map dated 1842 from the National Library of Scotland site shows Muirs's house to be on the south-west side of Lynedoch Street.  Like his brother, Robert ran a successful shoe and bootmaking business, this was continued by his son William.  

However it is the younger son, Robert Livingston Muir who travelled to Newfoundland.  Born in 1826, Robert seems to have forsaken the shoemaking business and became an apprentice to Cowan & Lawrie, drapers in Greenock.  He was lured overseas like many of his fellow Greenockians to St John's, Newfoundland.  Here he joined Edwin Duder (son of Thomas Duder and Ann Congdon) to form the company of Muir & Duder, merchants and ship owners in St John's.  He married Emily Duder in Greenock on 14 July 1847 and had several children born in Newfoundland.  Unfortunately Emily died aged just 29 in 1856 and is buried at St Marychurch, Torquay, Devon (Kingskerswell would appear to be where the Duder family originated).

The firm was successful and Muir made annual business visits to Greenock and Glasgow and obviously kept in touch with the large Muir family here in Greenock.  In June 1865, Robert Livingston Muir died, aged just 41, as the result of injuries received in a dreadful accident in Newfoundland.  According to his obituary in the Greenock Telegraph -

     "It appears that Mr Muir had been returning from business to his house in the country in a carriage  and while going down a steep hill the horse took fright and became unmanageable.  On nearing      an embankment he thought the animal was making to go over it, when he leapt from the machine.   In doing so he unfortunately broke his leg above the ankle.  He was carried into a house close by, and a friend of his - Mr Grieve, son of Provost Grieve of Greenock - driving up shortly after, got him laid in his machine on the top of a mattress and conveyed home, where medical assistance was called in; but owing to the serious nature of the injuries, he died after lingering for a few days."

A posthumus daughter, Roberta Livingston Muir (1866 - 1944) was born to Muir's second wife, Sarah Peele, daughter of George Peele of London.  They had married on 16 April 1860 at Southwark, London.  Sarah Muir (1834 - 1919) lived to the ripe old age of 85 and is buried at Monkton Combe, Bath.

The gravestones of Greenock Cemetery tell the stories of some remarkable and well travelled Greenockians.  Robert Livingston Muir's cousin was the noted  barrister Sir Richard Muir.  The Greenock born poet, Margaret Peace also lived in Newfoundland for a while.

The grave markers read -
In memory of Robert Muir and Mary Livingston his spouse who died within 1 day of each other the latter 19 March 1854 aged 70 years and the former 1st April 1854 aged 68 years.
Also their daughter Janet McLeod who died 15th June 1869 aged 59 years and Johnina daughter of the above Janet McLeod who died 26 December 1865 aged 17 years.
Robert Mackenzie son in law of the above Robert Muir who died 5th Nov 1879 and Elizabeth Muir or Mackenzie his wife born 16 Oct 1816 died 1st April 1895.

To the memory of Emma Duder the beloved wife of Robert L Muir of St John's Newfoundland who died 19 July 1856 at St Mary-Church near Torquay, Devon in the 29th year of her age.
Also their daughter Emma who died at St John's Newfoundland January 1856 aged 11 months.

Also the above Robert Livingston Muir who died at St John's Newfoundland 6th June 1865 aged 41 years also their son Edwin Duder died 7 July 1870 aged 22 years.

Sunday, 5 February 2017

The Greenockian who prosecuted Crippen

The Greenockian's name was Richard David Muir and he commenced his cross-examination of Dr Hawley Harvey Crippen with the question -
"On the morning of February 1 you were left alone in your house with your wife?"

Dr Crippen
"Yes" replied Crippen in response.
"She was alive?"
"She was."
"Do you know of any person in the world who has seen her alive since?"

One can just imagine these intense moments as the murderer and prosecutor faced each other across the Central Criminal Court in October 1910.  It is reported that when Crippen heard that Richard Muir would be prosecuting he said, 
     "It is most unfortunate that he is against me.  I wish it had been anybody else but him.  I fear the worst."  

Crippen was accused of the murder of his wife, Cora (stage name Belle Elmore) and fled aboard SS Montrose with his mistress Ethel Le Neve dressed as a boy.  The couple were apprehended when the ship arrived in Canada and brought back to Britain.  Crippen, aged 48, was found guilty of the murder of his wife and was executed at Pentonville Prison on 23 November 1910.  Crippen's crime and the ensuing trial have gone down in history - there can't be many who do have not heard of Dr Crippen.  (You can read all the fascinating details of the case at the Old Bailey Online.) 
Perhaps not so much is known of his prosecutor, Richard Muir.

Sir Richard Muir (knighted in 1918) took part in many of the most sensational trials of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.  He was in great demand for his cool, methodical approach to his work.  Possessed of a good memory, he was a logical thinker and thorough in his attention to facts and details, a trait he expected in others, especially police officers working on his cases.  As this excerpt from his notes in the Crippen case shows, he set everything out in a clear precise manner.  He kept his notes on small cards and used coloured pencils for different aspects of his cases.

A lot of information about Muir's legal cases can be found in the book - Sir Richard Muir - A Memoir of a Public Prosecutor written by Sidney Theodore Felstead and edited by Lady Muir.  (London, John Lane the Bodley Head Limited, 1927).  It is a fascinating read and readily available to purchase online.

Muir was born in Greenock on 8 March 1859 to Richard Muir, a master shoemaker in the town and his wife Ann Burley (or Burleigh) who had married in Greenock in July 1839.  His father ran a successful business and by 1851 was employing sixteen men.  At that time the family lived in Kelly Street.  Richard was the third son, and eighth child - more children were to follow.  Richard Muir senior's business flourished and he began to invest in shipping.  By 1861 the family had moved to Clyde Street or Low Gourock Road (Eldon Street before the Esplanade was constructed).  By the time of the 1881 census they were living at Oakbank on Union Street.

At this time Richard Muir was working as a commission clerk locally and was active in the Greenock Royal Rifle Volunteers, but he soon decided to join his elder brother Robert Burleigh Muir (a solicitor) in London.  Through extreme hard work he qualified as a lawyer and began his apprenticeship in the chambers of Sir Forest Fulton in Fountain Court.  He also began to learn shorthand at Pitman's school in Chancery Lane.  He soon earned a reputation as a first class verbatim reporter, specialising in parliamentary speeches.  He joined the reporting staff of The Times newspaper under William Leycester (1826 - 1893).  He ably juggled the two jobs and hardly surprisingly, seems to have had few outside interests.

He began to concentrate on legal work, taking over the Fountain Court chambers and began to make a name for himself as a thorough and dependable man.  He married Mary Beatrice Leycester (photo from National Portrait Gallery) in 1889 and they had two children, a son and a daughter.  His son, Burleigh Leycester Muir, also a barrister, was a Captain in the Army Service Corps during World War I and died on 4 November 1918 of influenza.  He left a widow, Vera Brodie MacQueen whom he had married in 1915 and a young son.  Muir's daughter, Mary Leycester Muir married Lieutenant Robert William Godfrey Kiesow of the Lancashire Fusiliers.

Sir Richard Muir died in 1924 and is buried at Norwood Cemetery in London.  However his name is included on the family headstone in Greenock Cemetery along with many of the other members of this large family.

The fraudster Whitaker Wright, the murderes Ronald True and Frederick Henry Seddon, German spies, the Hatton Garden Pearl Robbery and many, many other sensational trials made up the casebook of Sir Richard Muir - a truly remarkable man … from Greenock.

Friday, 3 February 2017

The Greenock Riot 1820

This sculpture is called The Hands of the Fallen by Angela Hunter.  "The fallen" is a reference to the local people who were killed or wounded during a riot in Greenock on 8 April 1820.  The sculpture is on Bank Street across from the Wellpark Mid Kirk.

The sculpture commemorates a dreadful day in Greenock's history.
Economic downturn after the Napoleonic Wars led to higher prices and unemployment. There was general unrest among workers and attempts to achieve political reform.  Artisan workers, including weavers were particularly active, calling for strikes across central Scotland.  Bands of radicals rallied and there were many skirmishes with the armed forces who had been called out to deal with the threat of unrest.  The ringleaders were arrested and jailed.  Paisley gaol was full so five prisoners were sent to Greenock to be imprisoned here.

A rumour about this soon got out and a mob gathered in the streets around the Bridewell (west side of Bank Street behind the Mid Kirk).  The five radical prisoners duly arrived in a cart escorted by the Port Glasgow Volunteers with a fife and drum playing.  The prisoners were put in jail and the Volunteers prepared to return to Port Glasgow.  The crown turned on them.  One of the local magistrates Mr Dennistoun tried to calm things down but to no avail.  Just at the Tontine (then on Cathcart Street), the mob began throwing stones and bottles.  Several of the Volunteers were hurt and fired a few shots in the air to warn the mob.  This only proved to anger them and eventually (at Rue End) the Volunteers had to fire in earnest, injuring and killing some of the crowd. 

The mob gathered together their own weapons, even pulling up iron railings en route, and followed the Volunteers on their way to Port Glasgow intending to fight.  They got as far as Garvel Park when they heard that more militia were being sent to Port Glasgow to help the local Volunteers.  At this, the crowd dispersed.  Meanwhile, some had broken into the prison and released the radicals (but none of the other prisoners).
A detachment of hussars and guards were sent from Glasgow by steamboat to Port Glasgow in case of any trouble.  But by the time they arrived the next day all was quiet.

A list of the dead and wounded appeared in the Glasgow Herald -

Adam Clephane (48) wound under the groin (dead)
Archibald Drummond (50) shot through the cheek (dead)
James Kerr (17) shot through the belly (dead)
John McWhinnie (65) shot through shoulder and chest (dead)
Hugh Paterson (14) shot through the leg (leg amputated)
John Patrick (30) shot through the thigh (doing well)
David McBride (14) shot through cheek and jaw (doing well)
A McKinnon (17) shot through chest and arm (doubtful)
Catherine Turner (65) shot through the leg (leg amputated)
John Boyce (33) shot through the belly (dead)
George Tillery (25) shot through the thigh (doing well)
Robert Spence (11) shot  in foot (slightly)
William Lindsay (15) shot dead on spot (dead)
James McGilp (8) shot in right thigh
Gilbert McArthur (18)shot through the left thigh (flesh wound)
John Turner (22) (flesh wound)
Peter Cameron (14) (flesh wound)
John Gunn (24) shot through calf of left leg
It was thought that there were so many leg injuries because some of the crowd had tried to wrestle the guns from the Volunteers.

The wording on the memorial plaque reads:-
Radical War Memorial
In Memory of those wounded and killed on the 8th of April 1820 during a protest against the imprisonment of those who led the campaign for better social and economic conditions in a period of insurrection known as "The Radical War".  Eight died, the youngest of whom was 8 years old, and the oldest 65.